Continuous improvement and evaluation of shifting comfort of automobile transmissions | Scientific Reports

2021-11-24 05:08:24 By : Ms. Ivy Zhuang

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Scientific Reports Volume 11, Article Number: 22610 (2021) Cite this article

Energy saving and environmental protection is the only way for the sustainable development of the automotive industry. Poor shifting performance of automobile transmissions will reduce the driving pleasure of the driver and make the driver feel fatigued. In addition, improper shifting will increase fuel consumption. Therefore, in view of the importance of improving the shift performance of vehicle transmissions and the shift quality problems of commercial vehicles, GSA detection technology is adopted to continuously achieve high shift efficiency and low fuel consumption. By establishing the subjective and objective evaluation criteria for the shift performance determined by the commercial vehicle test, it provides a reliable theoretical basis for product optimization design and shift performance evaluation. In this way, shift control strategies and optimized matching measures are formulated to ensure that the power, ride comfort and transmission of the entire vehicle system meet the technical requirements, and ultimately achieve fast and smooth shifts. Therefore, this work reveals the huge potential for improving the shifting performance and quality of the entire vehicle, which is expected to have an impact on the reduction of fuel consumption and emissions in the relevant automotive industry, and contribute to the establishment of a more sustainable society.

Today, we are faced with the cruel reality that global oil reserves are declining, while global oil consumption is increasing year by year. This has directly led to the global crude oil supply and demand situation becoming not optimistic. In addition, with the rapid growth of global car ownership and increasing pressure from energy and the environment, it has become more urgent for the automotive industry to solve energy and pollution problems in order to achieve sustainable development1,2,3. Under the development trend of “green, energy-saving, and environmental protection” in the automotive industry, we recently proposed a new approach to in-depth study of automotive energy-saving technology from the aspect of shift strategy control, which is conducive to environmental protection and energy security throughout the world, and to achieve automotive The sustainable development of manpower, resources and the environment in the industrial sector.

The current mainstream automobile energy-saving paths mainly include miniaturization, light weight, low friction, diesel passenger vehicles, high-efficiency power transmission systems (internal combustion engines, gearboxes), hybrid vehicles, etc.4. An overview of the energy-saving technology routes of the European Union and Japan, combined with the foundation and characteristics of my country's energy-saving technology, will help us have an overall concept. In other words, high-efficiency powertrain technology and automobile lightweight should be the key development directions of China's energy-saving technology in the near future 5, 6, and 7. Among them, high-efficiency powertrain technology is widely regarded as the most important and effective way to improve the fuel economy of automobiles. This is mainly due to the loss of more than 72% of the energy produced by automobile fuel combustion through exhaust gas. , Heat transfer and mechanical friction of the power system8. Therefore, how to effectively improve the efficiency of the power transmission system is an urgent task for the development of energy-saving technologies.

Among the above-mentioned vehicle powertrains, the vehicle transmission is the core component of the vehicle integrated drive control system, which has an important impact on the energy consumption of the entire vehicle9. Through the joystick and shift fork to manually adjust the gear meshing relationship in the transmission to change the speed and torque, so as to achieve the required transmission ratio change, which helps to optimally match the transmission system to the engine working conditions and improve the fuel economy of the vehicle Sexual and dynamic performance. Then, how to achieve the balance of economy, power, drivability, and NVH in the design and matching of the entire vehicle transmission is not only the transmission itself, but also needs to be comprehensively considered in the entire transmission chain. In this context, the GSA-based system test platform proposed in this paper is exactly what is needed in the implementation of vehicle gear shift assessment for this type of demand. It aims to further reduce vehicle energy consumption and emissions through the newly developed vehicle shift performance test system based on GSA test technology, and enhance the competitiveness of the vehicle powertrain in terms of power performance, fuel economy, and comfort.

This study provides a detailed overview of current knowledge about the positive impact of gear shifting performance on vehicle energy saving research and green driving through literature analysis. With the increasing market demand for vehicle handling comfort, energy conservation and environmental protection, the development of a reliable vehicle transmission shift test system has become one of the keys to improving the competitiveness of vehicle products10. Research has found that uncomfortable and unsteady driving interferes with the correlation between fuel consumption, emissions and driver personality11. Poor vehicle transmission performance will reduce the driver’s driving pleasure, make the driver feel fatigued, increase fuel consumption, and affect the driver’s green driving. Especially in urban traffic conditions, because the vehicle always selects and shifts gears uninterruptedly, the driver is very concerned about the comfort and smoothness of gear selection and shifting performance. Performance indicators will directly affect the driver's shifting efficiency. evaluation of. Some type of traffic vehicle12,13. It can be said that, as an item that users easily perceive, the shift performance of a vehicle transmission has a direct relationship with the degree of user complaints. The smoothness of vehicle shifting can not only ensure green driving, but also extend the service life of the vehicle, which is more conducive to environmental protection14. Therefore, in order to meet the needs of consumers and the requirements of energy saving and environmental protection, vehicle manufacturers need to continuously optimize the drive shift mechanism during the development and matching of transmissions, and improve the shift quality as much as possible to reduce shifts. Fuel consumption, improve driving comfort 15. Therefore, the innovation and contribution of this research is to strive to optimize the shift efficiency of the vehicle power system to create sustainable value and economic growth.

In view of this, people are committed to developing safe, reliable and competitive methods to test and evaluate the shifting performance of vehicle transmissions. In the early days, the automobile transmission shift evaluation test mainly adopted two modes: road test and bench test. Because the road test is greatly affected by natural factors, and more importantly, the test cycle is too long and the cost is too high, it is an inevitable trend to carry out the transmission shift performance bench test. In the rapid development and widespread application of virtual instrument and sensor technology, the shift performance bench test of automobile transmission has gradually become the main test method because of its high precision and high integration.17,18 It involves the hardware platform of the test bench and the software design for the measurement and control system. The test data mainly includes shifting force and shifting stroke. The curve of shifting force and displacement can also be obtained by offline analysis to evaluate the speed change. Especially the comprehensive test rig developed by Volkswagen in 1991 is quite amazing, it can carry out the life test of transmission, clutch, drive shaft and rear axle at the same time19. However, the disadvantage of the displacement test bench is that it is difficult to avoid the negative effects of human manipulation. The vehicle system lacks a simulation environment, especially the detailed model of the synchronizer, which is not only inefficient, but also cost-effective20. In addition, differences in personal operating habits and subjective feelings will also interfere with the objectivity of the test data, which is not conducive to the evaluation of the shifting performance of the vehicle transmission.

At present, there are two main methods for the shift evaluation test of automobile transmission: subjective evaluation test and objective evaluation test. The objective evaluation test is divided into static evaluation test and dynamic evaluation test 21. The subjective evaluation test refers to recommending experienced drivers to perform subjective test scores on various shifting performances when the vehicle is stationary or driving, and the subjective comprehensive scores of various performances are used as the evaluation test index 22. The level of the subjective evaluation test depends on the long-term personal experience of the test driver. There are obvious shortcomings such as excessive subjectivity, large personal factors, inability to quantify specific test indicators, and information transmission. The relationship between the driver and the designer is not accurate enough. Therefore, the objective evaluation test is more in line with the actual shift operation of the vehicle transmission and is favored. The static evaluation test is carried out under the conditions of normal temperature, the vehicle is stationary, the engine is off and the clutch is disengaged. Although the static evaluation test is very common among transmission manufacturers and is also the main method for evaluating shift performance, the clutch is in a disengaged state, which causes the transmission gear to be at a standstill during the measurement process, which has no effect on shifting. However, the customer always shifts gears while the vehicle is driving and the transmission is working. Therefore, the static evaluation test is difficult to reflect the shifting performance of the vehicle in the driving state, which is different from the customer's usage.

In view of the limitations of the above-mentioned documents in the subjective and static shift evaluation tests of existing vehicles, this study intends to use the new GSA (shift analysis) test technology to explore dynamic evaluation tests and subsequent rectification measures for dynamic shift performance of vehicle transmissions to fill in The gaps in previous studies have been eliminated. As shown in Figure 1, the entire GSA experimental device involves three-axis load sensor, three-axis displacement sensor, stroke sensor, speed sensor, temperature sensor (K type), digital thermometer, measuring arm (tripod), IMC measuring device, wire, button Devices, TTL converters, etc. It should be pointed out that the GSA high-quality knob sensor is used to obtain the high-precision force value of shift, selection and vertical direction, and uses the GSA stroke measurement unit to obtain the shift and selection stroke of the shift knob, and obtains the sensor signal through the GSA acquisition software , Realize the online display of sensor calibration and shift count. The outstanding advantages and innovations of this research are mainly reflected in the data reflected by the GSA analysis software, which can adjust the most suitable debugging options. The software takes manual transmission commercial vehicles (as shown in Figure 2) as the objective goal of the shift performance test. Here, combined with the past subjective test and evaluation experience, comprehensive analysis of the subjective and objective evaluation of shift performance can help designers systematically and comprehensively evaluate the shift performance of the vehicle transmission at each stage of the product life cycle. Using objective tests to explain subjective phenomena can more intuitively judge the difference in numerical curves under various working conditions, reasonably adjust shift parameter values, and achieve the goal of systematically improving shifting performance, thereby improving driving comfort and energy efficiency of the vehicle. Finally, this research will effectively fill the technical gap in the objective dynamic shift evaluation test of automobile transmissions, so that the test technology will play an increasingly important role in improving the shifting efficiency of commercial vehicles, which is conducive to energy saving and emission reduction. Reduce vehicles to ensure a sustainable future.

Complete vehicle gear shift test system.

Schematic diagram of analysis transmission.

With the continuous popularization of commercial vehicles in the market and the deepening of consumers' awareness of driving comfort, people are paying more and more attention to the overall shift quality of the vehicle. Especially in terms of environmental protection and energy saving, shifting efficiency has become an important aspect of major automobile transmission manufacturers' efforts to improve, and the corresponding vehicle shifting performance evaluation has also been more detailed and in-depth24,25. The GSA test technology can quantify the driver’s subjective feelings into objective data to guide the formulation of improvement measures. In view of its unparalleled advantages, this new detection technology has very broad application prospects and high research value. Generally, the entire test process can be described as follows: First, place the entire GSA acquisition and installation components in the test prototype in an orderly manner to ensure that all components can move smoothly within the working range of motion without interference; secondly, start the vehicle to test Power on the prototype, turn on the GSA hardware acquisition device, and debug it carefully. When the entire system is in a normal state, the data acquisition instrument begins to track the trajectory of the test data during shift operation. Third, considering that the above test data cannot be automatically identified, we also need to use the acquisition software to convert the collected analog signals into directly identifiable information for subsequent operations. Finally, the GSA software analyzer analyzes and evaluates the shift characteristics based on the above-mentioned converted information, and provides a test analysis report and guidance plan.

In this research, with the establishment of the GSA shift test and evaluation system, the research on the vehicle shift quality control strategy is realized. The proposed technical route is shown in Figure 3. Generally speaking, the first step is to formulate a detailed research plan to form a theoretical research framework for vehicle shift testing and evaluation. In addition, by collecting relevant product data and summarizing the technical parameters of the vehicle transmission and its steering mechanism, the development status of the entire shifting system can be preliminarily predicted. Then, start preparing to establish a GSA test system for reliable shift control performance. It is necessary to conduct subjective and objective evaluation and analysis of the shifting process, collect, analyze and evaluate various performance indicators in the shifting process in real time, and provide data and theoretical support for systematically improving the shifting performance. In the next step, a specific optimization plan for the vehicle shifting mechanism was proposed, and the shifting performance of the vehicle was retested and evaluated, and the best matching parameters of the shifting mechanism were obtained. Then, the effectiveness of the proposed improvement plan was verified through experiments. sex. measure. Finally, an optimized path for shift performance testing based on GSA testing technology is established.

Transform the testing and analysis process.

It should be noted that the GSA test system is composed of hardware acquisition devices and software performance analysis tools. The system realizes the remote collection, monitoring and processing of test data of the operating shift mechanism, such as the force, stroke, acceleration, etc. of the swing arm end of the shift knob. The system evaluates the shifting performance of the vehicle from the main index items such as shifting force (stroke), system stiffness, free clearance, and dynamic shifting. The comprehensive gear selection and shift performance of the whole vehicle is evaluated from the main index items such as gear selection and shifting force (stroke), system stiffness, free clearance, and dynamic shifting. In view of some of the current shifting performance problems, GSA test analysis was carried out on the test vehicle with the transmission assembly.

The Detent module of GSA is used to test the shifting performance of the vehicle. The actual shift force curve is shown in Figure 4. The conclusive post-test data information is shown in Table 1.

The shift force/pull force for each gear is appropriate

The 5/R gear characteristic curve diverges, which is caused by the 5/R gear overspeed shift structure, and does not affect actual use.

The inhalation of the shift position is not obvious.

Characteristic curves of different gears.

The driver's operating experience and the vehicle's dynamic shifting performance are related to the functional characteristics of the vehicle's gear selection to a considerable extent. It is best not to select the slope of the force curve too small or too large. The main reason is that if the slope is too small, the free play of the neutral gear will be too large, and if it is too large, the gear selection force may exceed the applicable range, which will interfere with the normal driving of the vehicle. Therefore, the selected force curve is best to expand horizontally or slightly downward.

The actual selection force curve is shown in Figure 5. The conclusive post-test data information is described in Table 2.

The gear selection force of each gear is appropriate, and the gear selection process is relatively stable and does not stall.

The selected stroke of each gear is relatively consistent.

The dividing line between 1/2 gear and R gear seems to be very clear, and the inhalation of the gear shift position is still very obvious.

Actually select the performance curve.

The condition of the free gap can reflect the accuracy of the shift lever, and a proper free gap can ensure the reliability of the shifting operation and a comfortable driving experience. The function of H mode is mainly reflected in it can clearly depict the boundary between different gears. Therefore, if the free clearance and H mode are analyzed together, we can clearly determine the applicability of each shift position.

The actual diagrams of H mode and Free Play are shown in Figure 6. The conclusive post-test data information is described in Table 3.

H-mode and free-to-play actual diagrams.

It can be analyzed and judged from the following table.

There is a small amount of overlap in adjacent areas, and the overall regional layout is orderly.

The free play of each gear is slightly larger.

The functionality of cross-shifting is an important indicator to measure the performance of the entire shifting system. This will depend on the optimal design of the internal structural parameters of the execution system and the quality control of the vehicle components.

The actual schematic diagram of the cross shift is shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2. 7, 8. It can be analyzed and judged from the figure below.

The characteristic curves of gears 2 to 3 are relatively scattered.

The characteristic curve from the 5th gear to the 4th gear is relatively scattered.

The characteristic curve from the 4th gear to the 5th gear shows that there is a gear shift clamping stall during this process.

The actual figure of the cross shift (2-3-2).

The actual figure of the cross shift (4-5-4).

Gear shifting and gear selection rigidity is another index to evaluate the shifting operating system. The correct selection of shifting and selection of rigidity help to reduce shift clamping and secondary shock. However, if the gear shifting and gear selection stiffness are preset too large, the subjective feeling of the shifting operation will become worse. Therefore, step-by-step adjustment of feasible shifting and selection rigidity is particularly critical.

The actual gear shift and selected rigidity are shown in Figure 9. You can analyze and judge from the figure below.

The recommended shift stiffness given by GIF is generally assumed to be 5 N/mm-8 N/mm, and the original observation values ​​are 7.8 N/mm and 7.7 N/mm. The gear shift stiffness of the entire test system should be within a reasonable range.

The recommended stiffness given by GIF is generally assumed to be 4 N/mm-6 N/mm, and the original observation values ​​are 7.3 N/mm and 7.1 N/mm. The selected rigidity of the entire test system is too large relative to a reasonable range.

Actual offset and selected stiffness.

This article uses GSA test system to test the shift performance of automobile transmission. By fitting the test data, a series of parameter change curves are formed. The subjective evaluation of shift performance is objective and quantified, and directly determines the items to improve shift performance. Judging from the final calculation results and related actual vehicle matching experiment evaluation, the shift performance of the vehicle may have the following problems:

There is no obvious sense of inhalation during gear shifting.

During the execution of the cross-shift operation, clamping stagnation is likely to occur.

The degree of deformation of the entire transmission system is relatively large, and may have exceeded the specified range of use. This will bring a clear sense of hitting the wall during gear selection, and a strong gear selector will clearly transmit the vibration of the transmission to the ball head for gear selection, which has a significant impact on the accuracy and comfort of gear selection. The actual gear selection operation.

In view of the above problems, we can take relevant measures to adjust the shifting performance of the vehicle transmission by improving the shifting structure and related design parameters. Specifically, improvements can be made from the following aspects:

Generally speaking, the sense of inhalation for shifting is to effectively reduce the distance the driver moves the shift lever. At the same time, it can also facilitate the relative reduction of shifting force and play a good role in improving the shifting feel. In addition, it can effectively attenuate the vibration amplitude caused by the gear shaft components, which has a positive impact on the driving comfort of the vehicle. In this case, we can try to adjust the size of the shift positioning block, install a suitable linear bearing, as an effective measure to improve the sense of suction.

It is generally believed that the interlocking plate is mainly used to prevent the shift gear from entering two shift positions at the same time. When there is an abnormal problem with the structural size of the interlocking plate, if the gear selection position is slightly deviated, the shift block of each gear will be blocked by the interlocking plate and stop. As a result, the shift head cannot move the shift block, resulting in a shift jam. In this case, you can consider adjusting the structure of the interlocking block and modifying the partial size of the shift head to eliminate the above-mentioned jamming phenomenon. The main features of this structure are realizing uninterrupted power, high shifting efficiency and low fuel consumption during vehicle shifting.

The role of the dragline in the gear control system is to transfer the driver's gear actions of the control mechanism to the transmission, so as to realize gear selection and shifting. It is recommended to select the appropriate dragline grease according to the vehicle model, ensure that there is a proper gap between the mandrel and the protection tube, and minimize the large-angle bending of the dragline. This can improve the matching degree of the powertrain of the whole vehicle, which is conducive to further reducing energy consumption on the original basis.

In summary, in the design and development of modern vehicle systems, vehicle dynamics control systems play an important role in vehicle safety, comfort, economy, and energy efficiency. In this article, we try to discuss the working principle of the GSA test system in detail, emphasizing that novel system tools can not only help engineers analyze the product design of vehicle transmissions with a greater degree of freedom, but also improve test efficiency. The vehicle integrated drive development process, and then combined with the author's university experiment center to analyze the defects of a certain vehicle during the gear shift process, and finally determine the key elements of the research object that need to be improved. In terms of its practical and methodological contributions, the advanced system analysis tools and equipment testing process involved in this article are very important for the development of innovative automotive powertrain products, especially under the pressure of increasingly stringent environmental standards and cost control. cycle. With this technology, we can quickly find out all the key points that should be considered in each element by establishing an objective evaluation, test and analysis of the shifting performance of commercial vehicles, and finally make a breakthrough in improving shifting performance and performance. Reduce shifting force. The shifting performance of automobile transmissions assists the sustainable development of the automobile industry by improving transmission efficiency and increasing fuel utilization. The information collection and processing improvement of GSA test technology applied to vehicle shift performance discussed in this study can better manage vehicle energy efficiency and reduce it through vehicle shift smoothness. This will further help drivers to carry out green driving as much as possible, effectively reduce environmental pollution and save energy.

The sustainable development of the automobile industry plays an important role in ensuring global energy security, coping with climate change, and improving the ecological environment. It will also become an important engine for the sustainable growth of the global economy in the future. Therefore, promoting the sustainable development of the automotive industry is the shared responsibility and goal of stakeholders in the global automotive field. With the increasing maturity and high-end development of the commercial vehicle market, the requirements for vehicle handling comfort are also increasing. Especially for vehicle transmissions, as an important core component of commercial vehicles, its shifting performance directly affects the driving performance of the vehicle. This article aims to clarify an objective evaluation method of vehicle shift performance based on GSA test technology, which can accurately record the static and dynamic data of vehicle shift, and then through data processing and analysis, it is convenient for professionals and practitioners to evaluate. Quickly and accurately find out the key parts with defects and solve them. Its scientific value is mainly reflected in the use of GSA test technology to explain the subjective evaluation phenomenon with objective test data, quantify the subjective experience of the driver into an objective data report, and provide strong support for improving the shifting performance of the vehicle transmission.

The contribution of this research is to guide the formulation of relevant optimization strategies, thereby improving the shift quality and efficiency of the vehicle transmission, so as to achieve the goal of energy-saving transformation of the vehicle, and ultimately improve the power and economy of the vehicle. At the same time, this research has also played a positive role in improving the shifting performance of vehicles in cooperation with vehicle manufacturers. Related methods and discoveries will help to further promote the optimization and matching of vehicle parts, save a lot of time and resources, reduce the number of subsequent optimization and testing, shorten the development cycle, and provide valuable reference data. Research and development of high-tech products in the later stage of the enterprise. In addition, the research results will expand its potential impact on the entire automotive industry, and provide certain theoretical guidance and useful practical suggestions for the automotive industry in the debugging and analysis of vehicle shift performance optimization. In this way, efforts will be made to reduce the environmental burden of the entire life cycle of the automobile transmission system, realize the win-win of environmental and economic benefits of automobile enterprises, and contribute to the mitigation of climate change and the solution of environmental problems, and it will eventually continue. Contribute to the construction of a low-carbon society.

There are certain limitations in the database available for this study, which will result in insufficient number and scope of references cited in this study, as well as low-impact sources, resulting in insufficient research background and affecting the academic impact value of this study. Paper. Therefore, future research will use more databases and combine different literature sources to better improve the scientific added value and academic contribution of the follow-up research results in the comparative elaboration.

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This work was funded by the Humanities and Social Science Research Project of the Ministry of Education (No.16YJC840005), Zhejiang University Student Science and Technology Innovation Program (No.2020R404057), and Zhejiang Science and Technology Research Project (No. 2020R404057). GG22E053896), Jinhua Science and Technology Research Project (2021-4-382), National College Student Innovation and Entrepreneurship Platform Training Plan (202113276004).

Hangzhou Vocational and Technical College, Hangzhou 310018

Li Yongxiang, Chen Zhenwen, Wang Chunhui, Li Jing and Guo Haixia

Xingzhi College, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004

Li Yongxiang, Chen Zhenwen, Wang Chunhui, Li Jing and Guo Haixia

Zhejiang Wanliyang Co., Ltd., Jinhua, 321025

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YL and ZC wrote the main manuscript text. CH, CW, JL and HG have substantially revised and reviewed the manuscript.

Corresponding author Li Yongxiang or Guo Haixia.

The author declares no competing interests.

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Li, Y., Hu, C., Chen, Z. etc. Continuous improvement and evaluation of shift comfort of vehicle transmission[J]. Scientific Reports 11, 22610 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-02130-4

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-02130-4

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